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(2020, August 27). The Mongol rule in China and the Middle East was very different politically in that the Mongols allowed the leaders in the Middle East to remain while in China they did not. This is the largest empire in history. For more on the impact of the Mongols on China, see: Langlois, J. D. ThoughtCo, Aug. 27, 2020, thoughtco.com/mongols-effect-on-europe-195621. This peace allowed for the reopening of the Silk Road trading routes between China and Europe, increasing cultural exchange and wealth all along the trade paths. 2. For more on the "Pax Mongolica," see: Parker, C. H., & Bentley, J. H. Chap 12: Mongols in Eurasia 1. Afro-Eurasian cultural sphere because of course not everybody involved in the empire belonged to it. In effect, the motive for later sea explorers, including Christopher Columbus, was to reach the east's riches, including India, as diminished prices and potential profits along Silk Road destinations proved to be very tempting. This page was last edited on 10 February 2021, at 16:42. Additionally, the invasions have been suggested to begin the spread of the Black Death plague, as population tactics and movements may have helped the bacteria spread more easily. It led to its economic and eventually political decline in the latter half of the 2nd millennium and leading up to the early 20th century. Alarmed, western Europeans and the Mongol rulers of China sought a diplomatic alliance with one another against the Muslims in southwest Asia. The Mongol rulers maintained peace and relative stability in such varied regions because they did not force subjects to adopt religious or cultural traditions. The Eurasian school, however, embraced the Mongol rule with the argument that it had a direct impact on strengthening the founding pillars of the Tsarist Russian State: Orthodoxy, centralization of political power, autocracy, and serfdom. In order to throw off the Mongol yoke, the Russian-speaking peoples of the region had to unite. In China and Russia, the Mongol era brought a great change in political power. The Journal of Economic History, vol. Such migrations had begun in the 11th century but increased further. Still, the situation soon changed as much of Eurasia remained pacified for much of the 13th-14th centuries, leading to regained prosperity along with parts of the Silk Road. (, 1981). The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century occurred from the 1220s into the 1240s. She has taught at the high school and university levels in the U.S. and South Korea. The plague also affected northern African and large parts of Asia.. Ultimately, the conquests led to a relative political calm in much of Eurasia that came after the initial conquests.[4]. Driving Question: Why did the Mongols have such a big impact on Afro-Eurasia? (, 2007). They wiped out the populations of some entire towns that resisted, as was their usual policy, depopulating some regions and confiscating the crops and livestock from others. Within the Pax Mongolica, the sharing of knowledge, information, and cultural identity was encouraged. The Impact of the Mongols The Mongol Empire had many impacts on modern day Asia and other parts of the world. Nevertheless, China's experience with the Mongol invasions may have contributed to its isolationist policies that started in the late 15th century. Then, the Mongol impact on Eurasia will be reassessed from three angles: the Mongol contribution to Eurasian integration, their impact on the Eurasian geo-political balance, and the future impact of their statecraft on the different regions under their realm. The Mongols also eliminated tariffs throughout their empire. This peace allowed for the reopening of the Silk Road trading routes between China and … Latham (Editor), 1st Edition, Routledge, February 10, 1999. In the centuries to come, European states would muster their new and improved guns first for piracy, to seize control over parts of the oceangoing silk and spices trade, and then eventually to impose European colonial rule over much of the world. By 1240, the Mongols had control of what is now Russia and Ukraine, seizing Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary over the next few years. Central Asia was a region that had always been important to overland trade between China and the West. One famous example is the Venetian trader and explorer Marco Polo, who traveled to the court of Genghis Khan's grandson Kublai Khan (Quibilai) at Xanadu in China. While they committed atrocities in conquest and spread their political control through much of Eurasia, the resulting Mongol … Additionally, with increased trade activity once again becoming common, and new knowledge spread to Europe. Because of this trade flourished in the Middle East as it did in China. They conquered a lot of land, from to Korea to Poland, and also from Vietnam to Syria. The old Mongol capital of qaraqorum was built using the best that the Afro-Eurasian cultural sphere had to offer. Genghis divided his empire among his four children, while investing one of them with supreme paramountship. Influencing the Mongol Empire: The political impact of the mothers of Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan Written for an academic research paper The Mongolian Empire was a nomadic empire that became the “largest contiguous land empire in history” stretching from Europe to Asia and at its height in the late 13th century, covered approximately 9.15 million square miles of land (Morgan 5). I’ll focus on the Muslims first. Alfani, Guido, and Tommy E. Murphy. Central Asia has experienced some of the greatest changes, where the decline of Indo-Aryan or Indo-European languages, such as those based on Persian, reflect a shift more to Turkic type languages. [1], While the Mongol strategy appeared cruel, it was also intended to avoid major setbacks due to their relatively small numbers. Such experiments first appeared among rising states in northern China after the collapse of the Tang dynasty in 907. It transformed the ethnic character of many regions, while at the same time permanently changing the strength and influence of the three major religions: … Symbol Reflects on Persia's original status as a great power, until they were conquered by the Mongols Mongol Influence on Persia (Middle East) Accepted Cultural Aspects Persia Influencing Mongolian Empire As a whole, the impact of the Mongolian invasion was harmful on the It will be argued that the influences of Mongols on Russia were both positive and negative, and that the impact of Mongol rule to a certain extent still defines the basic features of Russian civilization. 1, 2017, pp. "Plague and Lethal Epidemics in the Pre-Industrial World." Safavi-Abbasi, S. "The fate of medical knowledge and the neurosciences during the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian Empire." The Yuan dynasty became a successor Chinese state from a Mongol khanate. 3, Oxford University Press, JSTOR, June 1996. The Mongols were nomads while the Russians and the Chinese were sedentary. Biography of Genghis Khan, Founder of the Mongol Empire, Biography of Kublai Khan, Ruler of Mongolia and Yuan China, Khotan - Capital of an Oasis State on the Silk Road in China. Mongol Eurasia and Its Aftermath 1200-1500 C.E. The Golden Horde's occupation of eastern Europe also unified Russia. Mainly it also created opportunities for some regions while others saw their fortunes fall. The new weaponry sparked a revolution in European fighting tactics, and the many warring states of Europe all strove over the following centuries to improve their firearms technology. Additionally, to avoid revolts and other problems in areas they had already conquered, the Mongol strategy also included reducing these areas to the point where they could not be a threat again. An enormous variety of new consumer goods, agriculture, weaponry, religion, and medical science became available in Europe. Abingdon UK: Routledge, 2014, pp. had become rare, dangerous, and unpredictable. Medicine became one of the many areas of life and culture that flourished under Mongol rule. For more on the political effects of the Mongols, see: Reid, S. (1994). Over time, much of the Mongols' influence has become more of a background to other historical developments. Although Russia has since been invaded several times by the likes of Napoleon Bonaparte and the German Nazis, it has never again been conquered. Abstract. The Mongol conquests initiated by Genghis Khan, who united the often warring Mongol and Turkic tribes, in 1206 and continuing through his successors until the end of the 13th century launched a period of unprecedented destruction and transformation Eurasia. Ultimately, a number of Mongols turned to farming, married local people, and were assimilated into Persian society. Long-distance trade, human migration, and imperial expansion actively engaged people in different societies in significant cross-cultural interactions. The Mongols introduced two deadly Chinese inventions—guns and gunpowder—to the West. In effect, one of the great global powers began to become insular.[8]. • The Mongols conquered but did not occupy Russia. Cultural cross pollination of Eurasia under the Mongols had major influence on everybody involved. In 1480, the Russians—led by the Grand Duchy of Moscow (Muscovy)—managed to defeat and expel the Mongols. More Turkish based influences have subsequently replaced many Indo-Arayan languages across Central Asia. However, in China, the invasion may not have been as destructive to the population, as they seemed to recover by the 14th and 15th centuries. The Pacific World: Lands, Peoples, and History of the Pacific, 1500–1900. However, one area that the Mongol invasions have continued to affect is demographics. The Mongols increased their empire using swift and decisive attacks with an armed and disciplined cavalry. With the initial Mongol onslaught, many churches and monasteries were looted and destroyed while countless adherents to the church and scores of clergy were killed; those who survived often were taken prisoner and enslaved (Dmytryshyn, 121). 37-51. It developed within. Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Academic Press, ScienceDirect, 2008. As the region became stable under the Pax Mongolica, trade became less risky under the various empires, and as cross-cultural interactions became more and more intensive and extensive, more and more goods were traded. Positive Effects of the Mongols . The Mongols under Genghis Khan and his successors ruled Eurasia from China to the Middle East and Russia. Flynn, Dennis O. Ironically, the Russians used their superior firepower in the 19th and 20th centuries to conquer many of the lands that had been part of the Mongol Empire, including outer Mongolia where Genghis Khan was born. Bentley, Jerry H. "Cross-Cultural Interaction and Periodization in World History." For more on the role of trade and contacts between Europe, the Middle East, China, and India during the late Medieval period, see: Hebron, L., & Stack, J. F. (2008). The Mongol rulers maintained peace and relative stability in such varied regions because they did not force subjects to adopt religious or cultural traditions. For more on Mongol war tactics, see: May, T. M. (2007). Flynn, Dennis O. and Arturo Giráldez. Its rulers actively worked to ensure the safety of the trade routes, building effective post stations and rest stops, introducing the use of paper money and eliminating artificial trade barriers. It was a constant, multi-sided arms race, which heralded the end of knightly combat and the beginning of modern standing armies. As they also lost their ability to control trade routes after navigation improved to circumvent the Silk Road routes, this created new opportunities for populations from the eastern parts of Central Asia to increasingly move into other regions of Central Asia and the Middle East. The Mongolian rule had a very direct impact on the states of Russia and China. Historical Atlas. The new knowledge also flowed to Europe that helped to combine with shifting attitudes, which eventually launched the Renaissance. Perdue, Peter C. "Boundaries, Maps, and Movement: Chinese, Russian, and Mongolian Empires in Early Modern Central Eurasia." to 1450 C.E. In part, China's policies also adjusted based on experiences with the Mongols, which then led to new rulers in China becoming more isolationist over time. The spread of the bubonic plague from Central Asia into Europe decimated the populations but increased opportunities for the survivors. Many of the key trade cities along the Silk Road and regions in China initially declined due to the invasions. The economic effects of Mongol rule had an extensive and similar impact on both China and Russia. The greatest long-term impact of the Mongol unification of much of central Eurasia was the (A) introduction of new technologies. Trade established along the Silk Road in the first centuries B.C.E. [2], While the Mongols' conquest peaked in the 13th century, they did continue to invade and attack various regions long after this time. In Europe, and preceding the Age of Discovery that led to the founding of the New World, explorers such as Marco Polo could more easily go on the Silk Road and travel across Eurasia with minimal hindrance and banditry (Figure 2). The Mongol forces claime… Abingdon UK: Routledge, 2016. Respectively, it is important to note that because of the Mongol's dominance over "much of Eurasia [while terrorizing] the rest", the timing of Kublai's birth and reign, coinciding at the height of Mongol influence would magnify his power, control and impact at a much larger range then if he had been born into a different time period within the empire (Rossabi, Khubilai Khan 1). Europeans became aware, via the Mongols, of Asian products, as well as technological, scientific, and philosophical innovations in the Middle East and were motivated to find sea routes to South and East Asia. What Motivated the Mongol Conquests of Genghis Khan? New forms of banking and insurance practices, first done in Eurasia, now also spread to Europe and helped lead to important banking and insurance families in Italy and beyond. The Mongols also tried to capture Poland and Germany, but Ogodei's death in 1241 and the succession struggle that followed distracted them from this mission. The Mongols also eliminated tariffs throughout their empire. 1-8, doi:10.1016/j.chom.2016.05.012. "Empire: The Comparative Study of Imperialism." Products such as pepper, ginger, cinnamon, nutmeg, and other spices were now introduced to Europe at much greater rates. Marco Polo was one such individual. The Pax Mongolica refers to the relative stabilization of the regions under Mongol control during the height of the empire in the 13th and 14th centuries. (Editor). The distress was just as political and economic in nature as it was social and spiritual. Many of these impacts are not obvious, but the Mongols' influences, in effect, can still be felt today. Important trades shifted away from the Silk Road, and the New World gained a greater significance in the global economy. ), including examples of Huns and Germanic invaders (those that brought down Rome in 476). For more on the conquests by the Mongols, see: Saunders, J. J. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/mongols-effect-on-europe-195621. Keeping an army healthy was vital, so they created hospitals and training centers to encourage the exchange and expansion of medical knowledge. "Asia, Central, Steppes." Some of the most fundamental ideas and technologies in the world—papermaking, printing, and gunpowder manufacturing, among many others—made their way across Asia via the Silk Road. Thereof, how did the Mongols affect Russia politically and economically? Reports of the Mongol attacks terrified Europe. (Eds.). The Mongol invasions of the 13th century affected much of Eurasia, where at one point, the Mongols had conquered lands stretching from China to Eastern Europe. 12. Mongols' major advantage was their rapidly deploying and attacking before their enemies had time to organize. Prices for products dropped as fewer authorities competed for taxes collected along the Silk Road. The American Historical Review, Vol. In the end, the Mongols' Golden Horde ruled over a vast swath of eastern Europe, and rumors of their approach terrified western Europe, but they went no farther west than Hungary. Szczepanski, Kallie. Vol. The Khans, or “Great Leaders” ruled both places and destroyed cities and killed government officials. CiteSeer, The College of Information Sciences and Technology, The Pennsylvania State University, 2019. Amy E. Hessl, Nachin Baatarbileg, et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, March 25, 2014. Neurosurg Focus, Brasiliense LB, Workman RK, et al., National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2007, Bethesda MD. "Pacific Centuries: Pacific and Pacific Rim Economic History since the 16th Century." Diplomatic contacts and religious missions were established over vast distances. In China, the impacts did also lead to new political developments. 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