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Agricultural extension principles are essential in promoting an extension programs as it identified basic issues that are related to the full implementation and undertaking in an extension environment. Showing page 1. From 2006 to 2009 the number of farming households using Quncho increased from 300 to 7,741[1] due to the development of a variety better suited to farmer’s preferences and improved agricultural extension. 1966: Exte… Introduction to Agricultural Extension. The training of extension workers is also a potential driver of employment and economic growth. The dissemination of useful and However, Agricultural Extension can 2. practical information relating to be defined as an on-going process of agriculture and home economics; getting useful information to farmers or rural EXTENSION HANDBOOK Hudu Zakaria f 3 3.. This model for extension, however, is becoming out-dated in the more competitive, market-oriented climate of today’s agriculture. Emilia with her sunflower oil machine. a governmental official employed chiefly to advise farmers on farming and marketing techniques. Technology acceptance model revisited for mobile based agricultural extension services in India, Agricultural Encyclopedias and Dictionaries, Agricultural Energy Consumers Association, Agricultural Engineer/Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Engineering and Appropriate Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Engineering Sciences Building, Agricultural Engineering Services Directorate, Agricultural Engineering Technical Information Center, Agricultural Engineering Technology and Business, Agricultural Environmental Management Services, Agricultural Environmental Stewardship Initiative, Agricultural Extension and Adaptive Research Project, Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services, Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Department, Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Research Institute, Agricultural Extension Training Institute, Agricultural Field-Scale Irrigation Requirements Simulation, Agricultural Finance Corporation of Zimbabwe, Agricultural Financial Reporting and Analysis, Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act, Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act of 1978, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Geo-Referenced Information System, Agricultural Geographic Information System, Agricultural Ground and Surface Water Management Program, Agricultural Hazardous Materials Transportation Endorsement, Agricultural Hazards Early Warning System. Citation search. In 2008 the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) started to support Emilia’s small shop through the Mozambique Agrodealer Development project. In the case of Malawi in the early 1980’s, direct agent-to-farmer extension services cost US$21 per contact and US$4 to US$5 per participant for a one-day ‎‎training course. Download. Agricultural extension and education is an essential tool for the development of integrated agricultural development programs (Shahbazi, 1996). Emilia continues to receive support from AGRA and the African Fertilizer and Agribusiness Partnership (AFAP) to access finance to expand her business. [17] Extension services need to be sensitive to women’s household responsibilities, availability and suitability of the information to the beneficiary to reduce the exclusion of women from education and training opportunities. DZARC and their partners also developed and used a novel agricultural extension approach to improve adoption rates. Found 879 sentences matching phrase "agricultural extension".Found in 24 ms. Rural Development's Cooperative Services Program promotes understanding and use of the cooperatives to market and distribute agricultural products. However, no African government is currently spending even a tenth of that amount. SUBSCRIBE. Scientific research on improved varieties and management practices of tef have, until recently, been little adopted by farmers. Search agricultural extension and thousands of other words in English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso. [2] 1. Penn State Extension delivers education you can trust. 1. Contribution to Sustainable Intensification, Increasing productivity on current land requires significant investment in agricultural research and extension. Farmers were given the initial seed by DZARC on a ‘revolving seed loan,’ a scheme that permits them to repay in equivalent amounts of seed after harvesting. Tef is the main Ethiopian cereal grown on 2.5 million hectares annually, and serves as a staple food for more than 50 million people. Citation search. Download PDF. Input sales increased from 2 tonnes of seed and 7.4 tons of fertiliser during 2009-2010 to 65 tonnes and 54 tonnes of seed and fertiliser respectively, in the 2014-2015 season. The use of videos in West African countries such as Nigeria, Benin, Ghana, Gambia and Guinea has been successful in raising awareness about potentially beneficial technologies and practices among farmers. ... stay abreast of the latest in Agriculture. Extension, in general terms, is a function that can be applied to various areas of society. Search in: Advanced search. Agricultural extension programs improve yields and incomes for farmers. [15] Today 75% of Africans own a mobile phone, making it increasingly easier to reach those located in remote rural areas with timely weather forecasts. Many rural poor households face numerous risks, which require a more interactive extension system. [10], Information on the direct costs and cost-effectiveness of agricultural extension services across Africa is sparse, in part because this is not often evaluated. The Pennsylvania State University, 323 Agricultural Administration Building, University Park, PA 16802. [11], A more recent analysis of farmer field schools (FFS) – a participatory approach to farmer education and empowerment featuring discovery learning, experimentation, and group action – found the cost per participant to range between US$20 and US$40. Agricultural Extension Services. Lecture Notes ARG 305 Agricultural Extension Education. Credit, Agriculture for Impact, Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. Map & Directions Map & Directions. Agricultural Extension Officers communicate with farmers supporting decision-making by providing information on sustain-able farming practices. In other words, an objective means a direction of movement before, starting any programme, its objectives must be clearly stated, so that one knows where to go and what is to be achieved. Cooperative Extension System (CES) empowers farmers, ranchers, and communities of all sizes to meet the challenges they face, adapt to changing technology, improve nutrition and food safety, prepare for and respond to emergencies, and protect our environment. Both a “way of life” and a “means of life” for the people involved in In agricultural extension, there are also certain principles on which the subject matter is based on. Submit an article. [1], Case study 1: Extension and Quncho in Ethiopia, Case study 3: Emilia Abibo Savio, Agrodealer, Sussundenga District, Mozambique. Most producers live in a world of imperfect information, and are subject to considerable uncertainty with regard to weather conditions, pest attacks, and market options. Within the donor community, a revitalised and expanded role for advisory and information services is seen as central to pro-poor agricultural growth. Acre: A parcel of land, containing 4,840 square yards or 43,560 square feet. Subscribe. Agriculture and comprised research and extension, subsidies for a wide range of functions such as soil conservation works, boreholes, housing for farm workers, farm schools, fencing, disaster assistance etc. Therefore, it can be difficult to communicate or assimilate advice for widespread use. This process offers advice and information to help them solve their problems. Extension principles are paramount for both the extension agents and the communities in which an extension program are to be implemented. First, a complete package of recommended cultural management practices along with the new variety was provided, rather than just the seeds alone. Credit, CIMMYT. Extension is also critical to move research from the lab to the field and to ensure a return on investment in research by translating new knowledge into innovative practices. Traditional extension systems focus on increasing agricultural productivity, use a top-down approach and often emphasise the transfer of technology. The Cooperative Services division serves cooperative members, directors, management, educational institutions, organizations, rural residents, and others interested in cooperative-based business. It operates in the industrial, health and education sectors, as well as agricultural and rural development. 1949: The central task of extension is to help rural families help themselves by applying science, whether physical or social, to the daily routines of farming, homemaking, and family and community living. [12] Although government expenditure on extension services has typically been low, evidence from several countries show that agricultural extension is a pro-poor public investment with high returns to poverty reduction. She now owns 60 hectares of land of which more than half is used to grow maize, sesame, fruits and vegetables. Extension services are classified into 3 types:[4] Advisory – the use by farmers of a cadre of experts as a source of advice in relation to specific problems faced by them; These 2 farmers would then grow demonstration plots of cassava that were also used for multiplication and distribution of cassava to the other farmers. How to use extension in a sentence. Farmers learn about quality protein maize (QPM) as animal feed at a farmer field day in Kathaka Kaome, Kenya. The project offers business management training and helped Emilia acquire a good understanding of best agronomic practices. 2. “Communication is the interchange of ideas between two persons, in such a way that they act on the existing knowledge to achieve some useful results. Whilst it is still common for agricultural extension workers to be male and to interact only with men, in recent years there has been growing recognition of women’s role in managing farm households and the importance of female to female communication in the adoption of new farming methods and technologies. [18] However, agricultural knowledge is very contextual and requires a deep understanding of the entire farming system. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. Evidence from Nigeria shows that the higher the extension agent to farmer ratio, the more successful the extension delivery. The major constraint in tef husbandry is its susceptibility to lodging (where the plant is unable to support its own weight and may fall over or snap) that results in low productivity, about an average of 1 tonne per hectare. The high costs many farmers face in accessing extension services, such as travelling to a regional town or city, can act as a strong disincentive to seek out advice and support. To resolve this challenge, mobile phone networks can help to disseminate knowledge given the dramatic increase in access to such networks, even in rural areas, and affordability even for the poor. Emilia’s monthly sales now amount to US$1,000. Download as PDF. The PAES would also involve stakeholders from state universities and colleges, as well as civil society organizations to strengthen, In the agricultural sector; the urgent need for a highly effective, ISLAMABAD -- Pakistan Agriculture Research Council (PARC) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Tuesday signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for capacity development of, The officials pointed out that the schools have proved highly efficient on the ground, as they help to rehabilitate, We are persuaded that agriculture modernization will not go far without a strong, well-funded, This research applies the same model in the study of mobile based, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, DA to secure $240-million loan from World Bank for rural project, Artificial Intelligence is the answer to food insecurity in the country, NGO calls for more access for women farmers, RESEARCHERS' AND EXTENSION WORKERS' PERSPECTIVES ON AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH-EXTENSION LINKAGES IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA, Pandeglang Regent Inaugurates Farmers' Smart House in Cipeucang, Deputy Minister of Agriculture meets FAO officials, A collaborative province-led agriculture and fisheries extension model. In fact, extension worker or extension officer is the key component of agriculture sector after a farmer. In some cases, programmes training farmers themselves to become informal extension agents have proved successful in building human capital, such as Flora Kahumbe, an agro-dealer in Malawi, who was trained by RUMARK to be a private extension agent. Rural Development Cooperative Grants 3. For Sustainable Intensification to succeed, smallholders need to build up their understanding of farming systems and capacity to innovate within their own particular ecosystems. Rural Development Cooperative Services 2. [1] 1. Second, the new variety was demonstrated on-farm in large plots of ¼ hectare using a fast 1 year extension approach, rather than using small demo plots over 3 to 4 years, so that farmers were able to see the impact of the new variety and methods on yields more immediately. Trained agents visit communities to ensure the dissemination of current best practices, organize cooperatives, and implement secondary programs. The proportion of agriculture budgets allocated to extension services varies from country to country, for example, from 5% in Zambia to 50% in Zimbabwe. In addition to poor extension work, farmers have been reluctant to adopt the improved varieties. This paper. Uganda’s National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) have also contracted out extension services to the private sector and NGOs. Cassava roots. Emilia’s customer-base was growing to around 150 customers, so she decided to build a bigger shop. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the relationship between Communication, Diffusion, and Adoption. Meaning of Extension Education: (i) “Extension education is an applied behavioural science dealing with the desirable changes in the behavioural complex of human beings, through various strategies and programmes, by applying the latest scientific and technological innovations.” Different authors and scholars at different levels have viewed agricultural extension in various ways. READ PAPER. Many countries, especially in Latin America, have privatised and contracted out advisory services. Better, reliable and timely information will help farmers become more responsive to price signals and help to expand the reach and impact of extension and advisory services. Hudu Zakaria. This way, the farmers receive not only seed, but also a guarantee against the uncertainties regarding the performance of the new crop and associated technology. Technology transfer – the traditional model of the transfer of advice, knowledge and information in a linear manner; Agricultural extension is the service that provides technical advice to farmers, helps farmers acquire required inputs including credit for farming, provides training and evaluates new agricultural technologies on farmers’ fields in close collaboration with farmers, helps link farmers to supply chain and markets, forwards farmers’ concerns and problems to decision makers and thus helps in … These estimates however, do not take into account the costs to beneficiaries which can make the approach relatively costly compared to other types of programme approaches. Emilia now serves 300 farmers and used her profits to buy a sunflower processing machine to produce and sell sunflower oil for cooking. However, in case of developing countries, the role of agriculture extension office increases many folds. Extension Extension provides non-formal education and learning activities to people throughout the country — to farmers and other residents of rural communities as well as to people living in urban areas. 1. Research on agricultural education and extension to develop competence for rural innovation, entrepreneurship, transformation, and integrated development. Communication: 1. ‘Communication is derived from Latin word ‘communis’ meaning ‘common’. The University of Florida (UF), together with Florida A&M University (FAMU), administers the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Debre Seit Agricultural Research Centre (DZARC) developed a hybridisation by crossing 2 improved pure-line varieties (DZ-01-974 and DZ-01-196). 1965: Agricultural extension has been described as a system of out-of-school education for rural people. Agricultural extension and food security transfers have constituted the bulk of public spending in agriculture in Ethiopia. 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